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[MySQL / MariaDB] 優化查詢語句OFFSET越大時間越久的問題

開發實務上,很常會遇到需要做分頁的需求,並且API提供pagelimit參數可以帶,接著再根據參數去DB撈取對應區段的資料。例如今天我們寫了個撈取卡片列表的API,在API請求進來後得到希望查詢以最新創建時間排序、在分頁第4頁(每頁顯示10筆)的卡片資訊,經過轉換後,後端程式送出了以下SQL語法給DB查詢。

SELECT
    id,
    content,
    createTime
FROM card
ORDER BY createTime DESC
LIMIT 10 OFFSET 30;

這是我們目標查詢的cardtable的結構:

CREATE TABLE card (
  id INT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  content TEXT,
  createTime TIMESTAMP DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,
  PRIMARY KEY (id),
  KEY idx_createTime (createTime)
);

得到DB返回:

+--------+--------------+-------------+
| id     | content      | createTime  |
+--------+--------------+-------------+
| 999970 | (以下省略)... | (以下省略)... |
| 999969 | ...          | ...         |
| 999968 | ...          | ...         |
| 999967 | ...          | ...         |
| 999966 | ...          | ...         |
| 999965 | ...          | ...         |
| 999964 | ...          | ...         |
| 999963 | ...          | ...         |
| 999962 | ...          | ...         |
| 999961 | ...          | ...         |
+--------+--------------+-------------+
10 rows in set (0.01 sec)

撈出來的資料沒什麼問題,但如果今天卡片數量很多,例如範例中的table總共有100萬筆資料,而我們又剛好想撈取在中後面的分頁的卡片(就像你在凌晨四點把迷片網站翻到第10001頁一樣):

SELECT
    id,
    content,
    createTime
FROM card
ORDER BY createTime DESC
LIMIT 10 OFFSET 100000;
+--------+--------------+-------------+
| id     | content      | createTime  |
+--------+--------------+-------------+
| 900000 | (以下省略)... | (以下省略)... |
| 899999 | ...          | ...         |
| 899998 | ...          | ...         |
| 899997 | ...          | ...         |
| 899996 | ...          | ...         |
| 899995 | ...          | ...         |
| 899994 | ...          | ...         |
| 899993 | ...          | ...         |
| 899992 | ...          | ...         |
| 899991 | ...          | ...         |
+--------+--------------+-------------+
10 rows in set (2.09 sec)

奇怪,怎麼查詢時間瞬間從0.01秒增加至2.09秒這麼多?!那如果我們再查詢更後面的分頁呢,例如第90001頁會發生什麼事:

SELECT
    id,
    content,
    createTime
FROM card
ORDER BY createTime DESC
LIMIT 10 OFFSET 900000;
+--------+--------------+-------------+
| id     | content      | createTime  |
+--------+--------------+-------------+
| 100000 | (以下省略)... | (以下省略)... |
|  99999 | ...          | ...         |
|  99998 | ...          | ...         |
|  99997 | ...          | ...         |
|  99996 | ...          | ...         |
|  99995 | ...          | ...         |
|  99994 | ...          | ...         |
|  99993 | ...          | ...         |
|  99992 | ...          | ...         |
|  99991 | ...          | ...         |
+--------+--------------+-------------+
10 rows in set (5.44 sec)

阿娘喂5.44秒是怎麼一回事,看起來OFFEST越多查詢時間會呈現線性增長嘛@@?! 沒錯,你猜對了。

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